In English, there are two participles which you have to know: The Present Participle and the Past Participle. They are used to construct sentences in different tenses among other uses. They are used as adjectives as well. Let’s see how they’re formed below:
1) The Present Participle:
The Present Participle of a verb is formed by adding “ing” to it. For instance, the present participle of the verb “draft” is “drafting.”
Note: When a verb ends in “e,” we omit “e” and add “ing.”
Although present participles look similar to gerunds, they are different from gerunds. One important difference is that gerunds are used as nouns.
Let’s look at a few examples:
Verb Present Participle
2) The Past Participle:
Unlike the present participle, the past participle isn’t easy to form. Some verbs take “ed” to form their past participle. Others have to be learnt by heart as they are irregular in formation, meaning, their past participles are not formed by adding particular letters or applying specific rules.
A few examples can help us better understand this:
Verb Past Participle
In the first three examples, the past participle is formed by simply adding “ed” to the verb. If you look at the last two verbs, we didn’t add “ed” to them. There are no specific rules that tell us how to form such past participles either. Thus, they’re formed irregularly and you need to learn them by heart.